Vol. XXXII Issue 2
Breeding in Argentina
ISSN online version: 1852-6233
Note from the General Editor
Desde hace varias décadas, instituciones públicas provinciales y nacionales de la Argentina realizan una fecunda labor para el mejoramiento de la producción agropecuaria. En el marco de esa labor, los programas de mejoramiento genético han generado conocimientos básicos y de aplicación. En el mejoramiento genético de cereales de grano grueso y de grano fino, oleaginosas, hortalizas, frutales, y forrajeras se ha puesto de manifiesto la alta capacidad que tiene el país para la producción de cultivares comerciales mediante métodos clásicos (selección, hibridación, retrocruzamientos), con la relativamente más reciente incorporación de herramientas biotecnológicas (manipulaciones in vitro, transgénesis). En el mejoramiento genético animal, las dificultades que deben sortearse para formar una nueva raza de animales domésticos son mayores que las que se experimentan en la producción de cultivares de plantas. No obstante, mediante apareamientos dirigidos en ciclos de endocría y exocría acompañados de selección se han obtenido en el país productos genéticos comerciales.
En el libro de su autoría Principles of Plant Breeding (1960; John Wiley & Sons, NY), el Dr. R.W. Allard escribió: …The probable future of plant breeding can perhaps be best illustrated by an examination of the contributions it has had in the past”… Por extensión, el objetivo de la publicación de este fascículo especial sobre mejoramiento genético en plantas y animales es dejar registro de los objetivos, métodos, avances y logros de algunos programas argentinos consolidados, como reconocimiento a la relevante tarea realizada y en cuanto ejemplos para futuras generaciones de mejoradores de la aplicación de los principios y métodos de la Genética en el desarrollo de germoplasma básico y de productos genéticos comerciales.
Este fascículo especial fue co-editado por el Dr. Pedro Rimieri, Editor Asociado de la revista, a quien deseo expresarle mi agradecimiento por su entusiasta colaboración y valiosos aportes.
Elsa L. Camadro
ARTICLE 1 – research
CONTRIBUTION OF THE GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF TALL FESCUE (Festuca arundinacea SCHREB.) IN ARGENTINA: SYNTHESIS OF ACHIEVEMENTS AND ADVANCES
CONTRIBUCIÓN DEL MEJORAMIENTO GENÉTICO DE FESTUCA ALTA (Festuca arundinacea SCHREB.) EN ARGENTINA: SÍNTESIS DE LOS LOGROS Y AVANCES
Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is represented in Argentina by adapted populations of the continental morphotype, which are long persistent. It is the main perennial forage species cultivated in the temperate region of the country, producing forage for extensive grazing. The development of fescue plant breeding and its contribution to the achievement of higher productivity and better nutritional value with modern synthetic cultivars was the aim of this project. The characters considered were: adaptation and persistence in adverse environments, digestibility, leaf softness and tolerance to rust. The most representative cultivars of the stages and selection criteria considered in this work were: Pergamino El Palenque MAG, Palenque Plus INTA, Brava INTA, Baguala and Luján INTA.
Key words: tall fescue, plant breeding, cultivars, germplasm.
ARTÍCLE 2 – research
PEA (Pisum sativum L.) BREEDING: ADVANCES OF THE BREEDING PROGRAM AT UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE ROSARIO
MEJORAMIENTO DE ARVEJA (Pisum sativum L): AVANCES DEL PROGRAMA DE MEJORAMIENTO GENÉTICO DE LA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE ROSARIO
Gatti I., Cazzola F., Bermejo C.J., Guindón M.F., Espósito M.A., Cointry E.L.
A pea breeding program to increase production in quantity and quality was started in 2005 in the College of Agrarian Sciences (FCA), National University of Rosario (UNR). The first steps were to gather an active collection of germplasm from around the world and to analyze genetic variability through morpho-agronomic and molecular traits in order to set objectives. In 2014, the National Institute of Agropecuarian Technology (INTA) and the FCA-UNR, joined forces to unite inter-institutional efforts for promoting the local development of pea genotypes adapted to the region. This program, using conventional methodologies, has so far obtained a new commercial line (Primogénita FCA-INTA) of green cotyledons, semi-leafless, with high adaptation to local agro ecological conditions and high yield potential. Breeding, nevertheless, is a slow process. Developing new pea varieties usually takes a decade or more when using traditional methodologies; thus, different alternatives were proposed for the reduction of this period. Doubled haploids and in vitro culture have been some of the methodologies developed; in pulses, however, they have not been efficiently implemented in breeding programs. In this context, Speed Breeding emerges as a technology that allows increasing the efficiency of the programs, while reducing costs and the required labor.
Key words: peas, conventional methodologies, Speed Breeding, doubled haploids.
ARTÍCLE 3 – research
COMPLEMENTARY TOOLS UTILIZED IN THE PEA (Pisum sativum L.) BREEDING PROGRAM AT UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE ROSARIO
HERRAMIENTAS COMPLEMENTARIAS UTILIZADAS EN EL PROGRAMA DE MEJORAMIENTO DE ARVEJA (Pisum sativum L.) DE LA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE ROSARIO
Guindón M.F., Cazzola F., Bermejo C.J., Espósito M.A., Gatti I., Cointry E.L.
Conventional breeding can be complemented by different strategies that increase the efficiency of the methodologies and the current rate of increase in yields in order to meet demand. The use of molecular markers with the aim of developing linkage maps of the species, the use of Blup (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction) for an efficient selection of progenitors to hybridize, the use of in vitro culture to artificially increase the number of F1 plants or the use of digital phenotyping for efficient digital characterization that can be performed during the periodic and routine regeneration of accessions in germplasm collections.
Key words: Molecular markers, Blup, in vitro culture, digital phenotyping.
ARTÍCLE 4 – research
APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT METHODOLOGIES IN LENTIL (Lens culinaris MEDIK) BREEDING
APLICACIÓN DE DIFERENTES METODOLOGÍAS EN EL MEJORAMIENTO DE LENTEJA (Lens culinaris MEDIK)
Bermejo C.J., Maglia F., Palacios T., Espósito M.A., Cazzola F., Guindón M.F., Gatti I., Cointry E.L.
Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a self-pollinating diploid (2n=2x=14) species belonging to the Fabaceae family. It is one of the oldest crops known, with 8,000 to 9,000 years of history and it is among the earliest domesticates from the Near East Fertile Crescent. The seeds have high nutritional value. This crop is an interesting substitute to wheat in cereal rotations but its importance is low due to a lack of suitable varieties with local adaptation. Some of the major problems that Argentinian lentil breeders face are the narrow genetic base of the current cultivated germplasm and its low yield potential. A lentil breeding program was initiated in 2004 to develop new varieties with adaptation to prevalent conditions in growing areas of Argentina. Germplasm was obtained from ICARDA (International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas) and local producers. Conventional breeding methods using hybridization and selection are being carried out to develop improved varieties, broad the genetic base, and isolate superior recombinant inbred lines. Two new varieties have been obtained, one of the macrosperm type (Boyerito FCA) and the other of the microsperm type (Tacuarita FCA) through the application of mass selection in F2 populations from the cross of selected materials. This program complements traditional breeding methods with biotechnological techniques such as transgenesis, use of molecular markers, in vitro embryo culture combined with the SSD method to shorten the breeding time, and digital phenotyping.
Key words: Lentil, conventional methodologies, in vitro embryo culture, biotechnology techniques, digital phenotyping.
ARTÍCLE 5 – research
FRUIT QUALITY IMPROVEMENT THROUGH THE INCORPORATION OF WILD SPECIES GENES IN THE TOMATO (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
MEJORAMIENTO DE LA CALIDAD DEL FRUTO POR LA INCORPORACIÓN DE GENES DE ESPECIES SILVESTRES EN EL TOMATE (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
Pereira da Costa J.H., Cambiaso V., Picardi L.A., Pratta G.R., Rodríguez G.R.
The genetic improvement of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) has achieved an increase for yield and other agronomic traits in a short period of time. As a consequence, genetic diversity has been notably reduced. Wild germplasm has been mostly used as a source of resistance genes for diseases and pests. Our group started in the 1990’ a breeding program in tomato for improving fruit quality, with special emphasis on increasing fruit shelf life and broadening the genetic variability with the incorporation of wild genes. We have developed different populations from the interspecific cross between the Argentine cultivar Caimanta of S. lycopersicum and the accession LA0722 of S. pimpinellifolium L. Through crosses between these selected parents and the subsequent generational selection advance, we attempted to elucidate the genetic bases that underlie tomato fruit quality. To do that, we use state-of-the-art technology available in the field of genetics and breeding programs, including genomic, post-genomic and bioinformatic data. At the same time, we have developed four new cultivars with improved fruit quality traits compared to commercial hybrids. To conserve and study the tomato diversity, we have developed a germplasm collection that currently contains 162 tomato genotypes from different species and origins. In addition, we have started a direct transfer of our cultivars to urban and peri-urban community orchards to facilitate them the access to genotypes that were developed in Argentine public institutions.
Key words: Solanum pimpinellifolium, fruit shelf life, molecular markers, germplasm bank, agroecological orchards
ARTÍCLE 6 – research
MAGRARIO: A NEW GENOTYPE TO PRODUCE QUALITY SHEEP MEAT
MAGRARIO: UN NUEVO GENOTIPO PARA PRODUCIR CARNE OVINA
Generally there is poor tradition to produce and to commercialize heavy lean lamb carcasses. To achieve a better product for the ovine meat market Ideal (Polwarth) breed ewes were backcrossed to Texel breed rams (breed recognized to reduce carcass fat). Ideal breed (I) is one of the most ordinary breeds in Argentina. However, when their lambs are reared in feed-lot conditions, a high fat content is found in their lamb carcasses. After three generations of backcrosses followed by a breeding program for increase male lamb weaning weight and female fertility a new genotype was obtained for the local ovine meat production systems. This new genotype registered as Magrario (M) was obtained at Villarino Field Station of UNR (Zavalla, Santa Fe, 33º S, 61º W). It was verify that M produced more lean meat than I breed under feet lot conditions. M rams were introduced in flocks of Hampshire Down (HD) breed to evaluate lamb crosses with lean meat. Genotype M was compared under feed lot conditions with HD lambs during two months in the post weaning. Also crosses (MxHD), (MxI) and (IxHD) were evaluated in the same conditions. At the end of the experiment ultrasonic methods were used to evaluate fat depot on Longissimus dorsi. The (MxHD) showed a reduction of 20% respecting to HD. These results suggested that M genotype could be a useful paternal genotype to reduce fat depots when the aim is to produce lamb crosses under feed lot conditions in a short period of time.
Key words: ovine, lean meat, feed lot, crossing.
ARTÍCLE 7 – research
CROSSING STRATEGY FOR BREEDING CAMPERO CHICKENS. AN INTA-UNIVERSITY COLLABORATIVE PROJECT
ESTRATEGIA DE CRUZAMIENTOS PARA EL MEJORAMIENTO DE POLLOS CAMPEROS. UN PROYECTO COLABORATIVO INTA-UNIVERSIDAD
Canet, Z.E., Dottavio, A.M., Romera, B.M., Librera, J.E., Advínculo, S.A., Martines, A., Di Masso, R.J.
Campero chicken is a bird destined to production systems alternative to the industrial one. Campero INTA is a two-way cross between synthetic populations generated by INTA in Pergamino. These populations have remained closed and with a low effective size with the consequent detrimental effect associated with inbreeding depression. To have a dual-purpose population with adequate meat and egg production levels and rusticity to be used in semi-intensive systems that preserve animal welfare, a survey program of the available genetic resource was implemented and a crossbreeding plan to produce a terminal three-way hybrid was designed. The sequence included the evaluation of five maternal synthetic populations (A, E, DE, ES and CE), the selection of two of them (ES and A), their characterization in two-way reciprocal crosses [(ESxA) and (AxES)], the choice of the alternative (ESxA) as female parent and its crossing by roosters of the improved paternal line AH’ to obtain the Campero Casilda chicken as the final product. The evaluation of their growth pattern, body conformation, conversion ratio and productive characters at slaughter indicate that both males and females satisfied the requirements as birds destined for meat production established in the respective protocol. The evaluation of productive characters at sexual maturity, dynamic pattern of egg weight gain and laying curves allowed to qualify the females as layers.
Key words: growth, body conformation, slaughter traits, egg production, dual purpose poultry
ARTÍCLE 8 – research
AGRONOMIC ASPECTS OF RELEVANCE IN BASE POPULATIONS FOR PLANT BREEDING
ASPECTOS AGRONÓMICOS DE RELEVANCIA EN POBLACIONES UTILIZADAS COMO BASE PARA EL MEJORAMIENTO GENÉTICO VEGETAL
The objective of this work was to analyze the complexity of the agronomic components and their incidence in the selection criteria for the developmet of base populations for plant breeding. In that analysis, a discussion was carried out on the interaction of plant breeding with other disciplines and specific selection methods for an each day more sustainable agriculture.
Key words: aspectos agronómicos en mejoramiento genético vegetal, mejoramiento genético de poblaciones, selección en plantas